Know² uses a systematic approach to training law enforcement

Know² uses a systematic approach to training law enforcement

The Know² approach to training and learning follows the “Systematic Approach to Training” also commonly referred to “The Training Cycle”. Quality assurance methods and techniques are applied throughout the process.

Identification of Training Needs

This is the first and most important stage in the cycle because all other the components follow on from the identification of training needs. Typically, it is the stage where:

  • Problems and training solutions are determined
  • Training methodologies or a mixture of training  methodologies are considered and recommended to meet the best value for money options
  • Overall training aims, objectives and key teaching points established
  • Identify and recommend evaluation measurement and methods
  • Languages
  • Costed options and timescales

Fact finding activities might include:

  • An assortment of face to face and group meetings, presentations and workshops with heads of law enforcement agencies, heads of training institutions, training managers and operational staff at various levels
  • Visits to operational locations to observe the work being carried out at first hand
  • Presentation of key findings to heads of agencies and donors where appropriate

At the end of the analysis stage Know² will provide a comprehensive proposal that highlights the training solutions as well as costed options and timescales.

If the Know² proposal is approved a detailed contract will be produced by Know² and signed by all the relevant parties.

Know² employs a number of senior law enforcement consultants who all have extensive training backgrounds and previous experience in carrying out training needs analysis assignments worldwide. As well as carrying out the above activities Know2 training consultants can also offer advice, guidance and mentoring in varies aspects of training e.g. strategic planning, trainer selection and training and curriculum development etc

Design of Training Material

The Design phase follows the identification of training needs and it is during this time that the training products are designed and produced to meet the training needs identified during the training needs analysis phase.

Know² employs various law enforcement training advisers, subject experts and IT staff (programmers and graphic designers etc) to design training products in all manner of training methodologies. These include:

  • Highly interactive e-learning products that can be delivered online, on  standalone computers and laptops as well as on a dedicated network of computers in an E-learning centre or on tablets/I Pads, and smart phones etc
  • DVDs
  • Workbooks and manuals
  • Classroom training courses
  • Role playing events and exercises
  • Trainer training selection events
  • Trainer training courses
  • Workshops and seminars
  • Presentations
  • Aide memoires, leaflets and brochures and other supporting training material

Training products can be produced in any language required by the client.

No matter the training methodology designed and produced a “rough cut” version of the training material will always be pilot tested in country with a sample of the target audience before it is implement to the workforce at large. Data and feedback produced during the pilot testing is collected and analysed by Know² training experts and changes are made to the courseware where appropriate.

The final version is then produced.

Delivery of Training Products

Know2 delivers all of the training methodologies mentioned above. Currently Know² training material is being delivered to law enforcement personnel in 50 countries in 20 languages.

Once the final version has been produced it is passed to the client for delivery. In the majority of cases Know² will closely support the client during the initial stages of delivery usually by working alongside and supporting local trainers and training managers.

Evaluation of Training Delivered

Learning evaluation is a widely researched area. This is understandable since the subject is fundamental to the existence and performance of staff training and development around the world, not least by law enforcement agencies and international donors. Simply put, stakeholders need to be assured that the training that is being delivered is fit for purpose and provides value for money on an ongoing basis.

It is vitally important that the degree and levels of evaluation are agreed during the training needs analysis stage. The higher the level of the evaluation the cost and complexity of the task increases so it is essential that the level of evaluation to be undertaken is selected and agreed at the outset.

Once the training has been implemented over a reasonable period of time (e.g. 12-18 months) an evaluation exercise should take place. Know²will undertake the exercise to evaluate the training delivered to the level agreed during the training needs analysis phase. Know² Law Enforcement Training Evaluators will carry out the task in-country  and finally prepare an in depth report of findings and recommendations on future actions etc.

Know² adopts the Kirkpatrick Learning and Training Evaluation theory. It is a four-level model that is now considered an industry standard across the Human Resource and training communities.

The four levels of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model essentially measure:
• reaction of student – what they thought and felt about the training
• learning – the resulting increase in knowledge or capability
• behaviour – extent of behaviour and capability improvement and implementation/application
• results – the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee’s performance

All these measures are recommended for full and meaningful evaluation of learning in organizations, although their application broadly increases in complexity, and usually cost, through the levels from level 1-4.

The four levels of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model essentially measure:
• reaction of student – what they thought and felt about the training
• learning – the resulting increase in knowledge or capability
• behaviour – extent of behaviour and capability improvement and implementation/application
• results – the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee’s performance

All these measures are recommended for full and meaningful evaluation of learning in organizations, although their application broadly increases in complexity, and usually cost, through the levels from level 1-4.

The grid below illustrates the basic Kirkpatrick structure at a glance. The second grid, applies the same concepts but with more detail.

 

evaluation type (what is measured)

evaluation description and characteristics

examples of evaluation tools and methods

relevance and practicability

Reaction Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt about the training or learning experience. ‘Happy sheets’, feedback forms.Verbal reaction, post-training surveys or questionnaires. Quick and very easy to obtain.Not expensive to gather or to analyse.
Learning Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge – before and after. Typically assessments or tests before and after the training.Interview or observation can also be used. Relatively simple to set up; clear-cut for quantifiable skills.Less easy for complex learning.
Behaviour Behaviour evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job – implementation. Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change. Measurement of behaviour change typically requires cooperation and skill of line-managers.
Results  Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee. Measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting – the challenge is to relate to the trainee. Individually not difficult; unlike whole organisation.Process must attribute clear accountabilities.

 

The following grid illustrates the Kirkpatrick’s structure in more detail, and particularly the modern-day interpretation of the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, usage, implications, and examples of tools and methods. This diagram is the same format as the one above but with more detail and explanation:

 

evaluation level and type

evaluation description and characteristics

examples of evaluation tools and methods

relevance and practicability

Reaction

Reaction evaluation is how the delegates felt, and their personal reactions to the training or learning experience, for example:

Did the trainees like and enjoy the training?

Did they consider the training relevant?

Was it a good use of their time?

Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics, etc?

Level of participation.

Ease and comfort of experience.

Level of effort required to make the most of the learning.

Perceived practicability and potential for applying the learning.

Typically ‘happy sheets’.Feedback forms based on subjective personal reaction to the training experience.Verbal reaction which can be noted and analysed.Post-training surveys or questionnaires.Online evaluation or grading by delegates.Subsequent verbal or written reports given by delegates to managers back at their jobs. Can be done immediately the training ends.Very easy to obtain reaction feedbackFeedback is not expensive to gather or to analyse for groups.Important to know that people were not upset or disappointed.Important that people give a positive impression when relating their experience to others who might be deciding whether to experience same.
 Learning Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning experience:Did the trainees learn what was intended to be taught?Did the trainee experience what was intended for them to experience?What is the extent of advancement or change in the trainees after the training, in the direction or area that was intended? Typically assessments or tests before and after the training.Interview or observation can be used before and after although this is time-consuming and can be inconsistent.Methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning.Measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale.Reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment.Hard-copy, electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible. Relatively simple to set up, but more investment and thought required than reaction evaluation.Highly relevant and clear-cut for certain training such as quantifiable or technical skills.Less easy for more complex learning such as attitudinal development, which is difficult to assess?Cost escalates if systems are poorly designed, which increases work required to measure and analyse.
Behaviour Behaviour evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behaviour, and this can be immediately and several months after the training, depending on the situation:Did the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job?Were the relevant skills and knowledge usedWas there noticeable and measurable change in the activity and performance of the trainees when back in their roles?Was the change in behaviour and new level of knowledge sustained?Would the trainee be able to transfer their learning to another person?Is the trainee aware of their change in behaviour, knowledge, skill level? Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change.Arbitrary snapshot assessments are not reliable because people change in different ways at different times.Assessments need to be subtle and ongoing, and then transferred to a suitable analysis tool.Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgment of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements.The opinion of the trainee, which is a relevant indicator, is also subjective and unreliable, and so needs to be measured in a consistent defined way.360-degree feedback is useful method and need not be used before training, because respondents can make a judgment as to change after training, and this can be analysed for groups of respondents and trainees.Assessments can be designed around relevant performance scenarios, and specific key performance indicators or criteria.Online and electronic assessments are more difficult to incorporate – assessments tend to be more successful when integrated within existing management and coaching protocols.Self-assessment can be useful, using carefully designed criteria and measurements. Measurement of behaviour change is less easy to quantify and interpret than reaction and learning evaluation.Simple quick response systems unlikely to be adequate.Cooperation and skill of observers, typically line-managers, are important factors, and difficult to control.Management and analysis of ongoing subtle assessments are difficult, and virtually impossible without a well-designed system from the beginning.Evaluation of implementation and application is an extremely important assessment – there is little point in a good reaction and good increase in capability if nothing changes back in the job, therefore evaluation in this area is vital, albeit challenging.Behaviour change evaluation is possible given good support and involvement from line managers or trainees, so it is helpful to involve them from the start, and to identify benefits for them, which links to the level 4 evaluation below. 
Results  Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment resulting from the improved performance of the trainee – it is the acid test.Measures would typically be business or organisational key performance indicators, such as:Volumes, values, percentages, timescales, return on investment, and other quantifiable aspects of organisational performance, for instance; numbers of detections, arrests, drug seizures, changes in criminal activity to avoid detection, staff satisfaction, self esteem and motivation. Also staff turnover, success/failures, quality ratings, achievement of standards and business objectives,  accreditations, growth, retention, etc. etc  It is possible that many of these measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting.The challenge is to identify which and how relate to the trainee’s input and influence.Therefore, it is important to identify and agree accountability and relevance with the trainee at the start of the training, so they understand what is to be measured.This process overlays normal good management practice – it simply needs linking to the training input.Failure to link to training input type and timing will greatly reduce the ease by which results can be attributed to the training.For senior people particularly, annual appraisals and ongoing agreement of key business objectives are integral to measuring business results derived from training.  Individually, results evaluation is not particularly difficult; across an entire organisation it becomes very much more challenging, not least because of the reliance on line-management, and the frequency and scale of changing structures, responsibilities and roles, which complicates the process of attributing clear accountability.Also, external factors greatly affect organisational and business performance, which cloud the true cause of good or poor results. While Kirkpatrick’s model is not the only one of its type, for most industrial and commercial applications it suffices; indeed most organisations would be delighted if their training and learning evaluation, and thereby their ongoing people-development, were planned and managed according to Kirkpatrick’s model.Know2 employs several Law Enforcement Training Consultants who specialize in the evaluation of training programmes on an international basis.

 

E-learning

Whilst Know² produces and provides a wide range of training products and services it has become recognised market leader in the design, delivery and evaluation of e-learning.

In the past Know² delivered its Interactive e-learning Law Enforcement Training curriculum in partnership with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. This ten year partnership resulted in 100+ training modules being delivered via dedicated Computer Based (CBT) Centres in 55 countries and in 18 languages.

In Pakistan, for instance (the latest recipient country), 17 separate law enforcement agencies are currently delivering the Know² e-learning  curriculum in 45 dedicated e-learning centres in various parts of the country in 3 different languages.

In 2013 a comprehensive evaluation of the Know² training programme was undertaken, which included questionnaires, informal telephone interviews and interviews of officers in the field. The results were overwhelmingly positive, with over 95% of the participants responding that the training provided was an effective method of training. Reports and data generated by the learning management systems at the e-learning centres showed the delivery of more than 100,000 hours of training to more than 12,000 law enforcement personnel in a relatively short time span. Most of the students were stationed in high risk areas of the country. By 2015 a further 30 e-learning centres will be established in Pakistan.

The evaluation exercise clearly demonstrated that the training delivered was starting to contribute to an increase in the effectiveness of how Law enforcement deals with the security challenges facing the country.

Courses Available

The Know2 CBT curriculum consists of a  wide range of law enforcement training programs including extensive programmes, for instance in subjects such as intelligence, human trafficking, money laundering, risk assessment (airports, seaports and land border crossings, drug identification and testing, drug precursors, controlled deliveries, first responder to a crime scene, gathering digital evidence, investigating organized crime, search techniques (persons, vehicles and aircraft and risk management techniques etc. The full curriculum can be found on the Know2 website.

Interested parties who wish to look at examples of Know2 e-learning products online can do so by contacting the company though its website and we will provide limited access for specific period of time.

 Key findings

Know2 has been designing, delivering, evaluating and supporting its Law Enforcement e-learning programme since 1998. During that time some key findings have emerged:

  • Prioritize the roll-out the e-learning programme to training institutions, which train large volumes of personnel and are more conducive because they are established training environments e.g. law enforcement training academies, Police colleges, schools and, Police Lines, and the Regional Directorates and institutes.
  • The need to establish dedicated e-learning centres near or close to high-risk areas, where a number of different law enforcement agencies operate e.g. Major airports, sea ports and border crossings.
  • The need to establish e-learning centres in national and regional headquarters departments.
  • The need to focus on law enforcement agencies who have large number of personnel.
  • Focus on key directorates in provinces to reach field personnel – while these might not be training environments, these locations nevertheless have large numbers of operational staff present.
  • Finally, focus on ensuring personnel in remote operational locations have access to the training.

Student Management

The Know² CBT programme is more than a learning tool because it includes an evaluation component called a Learning Management System (LMS).

The training managers at each location will use the LMS to decide from a list of training programmes, what training is to be given to each individual student. The student will then be assigned to specific course to meet their individual training needs. The LMS will then automatically assign track and reports training results to an information database.

Benefits of e-learning

With computer based training, the computer becomes the instructor and the evaluator. Because the training has been developed using experts from all around the world, the end result is a course that is delivered using high quality voice, pictures, video, animation and training material in the user’s own language.

The student interacts with the training material through interactions, simulations and tests. The result is that a student can learn at his/her own pace and is free to make mistakes in private. Because of the highly interactive nature of the training environment, students become involved with the subject matter in a meaningful way.

This provides law enforcement agencies with a consistent and high quality means of providing training to their workforce.

There are numerous benefits associated with using the Know² e-learning programme. These include:

 Availability – Agencies worldwide have found that training can be made available anytime and anywhere there is a computer. There is no need to set up a course or have expert instructors to teach a course. Users can take courses at assigned times or anytime they are free from other duties. In addition, the training is available at any time, day or night – not only when class is in session.

Learn at own pace – Users learn at their own pace – Because the training is self-paced, a user can take as long as they like to complete a lesson. This ensures that they have learned the subject before they move on to another lesson.

Consistent quality – While trainers have bad days and the quality of a trainer can vary, e-learning can be designed and delivered at a very high and consistent quality standard for every user. In other words the quality of the training remains the same no matter in which location it is being delivered. This ensures that training is delivered at a consistent standard throughout the organization.

Cost effectivenessFor agencies that have a large number of users, it becomes more cost effective than other training methods.

Train large numbers – Because this type training is not dependent on the availability of instructors, a large number of users can be trained quickly. Students don’t have to wait for courses to be set up, trainers released and classrooms available etc

Enhanced retention – Because the training has been designed to interact with and stimulate a user, this increases the user’s retention of the material, resulting in reduced time required for training.

Performance tracking – With traditional training, law enforcement agencies had difficulties in determining if officers benefited from the training. Through the LMS competency-based testing is built directly into the training, which ensures that the officers have learned the subject. As the user goes through the training, all user performance parameters are automatically recorded into the LMS. These include:

  • Time spent in the courses and the training programme
  • Lessons and Courses Completed
  • Grades on tests and exercises
  • Many other student performance statistics

This allows agencies to clearly see that users have received the knowledge required to perform their duties.

Report generation – The LMS can automatically generate data including who completed the training and what their performance was. This allows management to oversee and plan the training delivered and participate in the learning process